By Howard Meyerson
Grand Rapids, Mich. – It took more than 100 years and three major mishaps, but the Pigeon River is free-flowing once again. The Song of the Morning Yoga Retreat dam was removed this fall. Deep in the heart of the Pigeon River Country State Forest east of Vanderbilt, the state designated Wild-Scenic River is now etching its way back into its historic streambed.
“Aaahh, finally,” declares Tim Cwalinski, senior fisheries biologist at the Michigan DNR’s Gaylord office. “A removal like this is a watershed moment in a career. Certain dams are limiting factors on fisheries and aquatic habitat. The Song of the Morning (SOM) dam was one of those.
“This next spring we will get steelhead moving up from Mullett Lake. They spawn throughout the lower river. Those that (once) put the brakes on at the dam will now go upstream where they have been absent forever. There are going to be some competitive forces playing out with brook trout and brown trout, but we’ll watch to see what happens there.”
Deconstruction of the dam began October 27, 2015 and took about week to complete, according to Lisha Ramsdell, the Phase II project manager with Huron Pines, a conservation and resource development non-profit in Gaylord that was contracted to oversee the project. Phase I involved permanently drawing down the impoundment behind it in 2014 as part of a settlement agreement between the state and Golden Lotus Inc., which has owned and operated the property since 1969. The company was fined $120,000 to mitigate the effects of a 2008 silt spill from the dam, a catastrophic event that killed an estimated 450,000 trout.
Three dam failures
It was the third time such a mishap occurred in just over 50 years. The first occurred in 1957, according to historical records when an earthen dam built by then owners, The Lansing Club, failed and flooded the river causing a major fish kill. The dam was then replaced with a concrete dam, and the property was later acquired by Golden Lotus, which experienced another dam failure in 1984.
The dam’s removal and the construction of a new bridge over the river, work still underway, was spelled out in a collaborative restoration agreement between Golden Lotus Inc., Trout Unlimited and the Pigeon River Country Association after the most recent spill.
“It’s fantastic to see. It’s been a lot of hard work for a lot of people,” Ramsdell said. “Within days you could see a gravel bottom right at the dam site. There is still a lot of work ahead and the river will continue to find its path (upstream from the former dam), but that’s what we are doing it for.
A problem for fisheries
The Song of the Morning dam has been a thorn in side of fishery managers for decades. Peaking operations at the functioning hydro-electric dam often caused fish kills and destabilized trout habitat downstream, though not to the degree of the major spills, according to Cwalinski. The impoundment behind it also warmed river waters, raising temperatures downstream by three to five degrees for a mile when they were released.
Those temperature problems were resolved when the dam was permanently opened in 2014, Cwalinski said. He expects trout fishing will improve and those improvements will be noticed considerably further downstream.
“We will now have a more stable stream environment and I expect we will see more bugs and better reproduction for brook trout and brown trout,” Cwalinski said. “The Pigeon has not been stocked (with trout) and we have no plans to stock it. It doesn’t really need it. It’s been a very healthy river except for one thing – and that is now gone. We should have water that is suitable for trout downstream in July and August. There is going to be more year-round trout water.”
The dam deconstruction and bridge building effort is expected to cost approximately $365,000, according to Ramsdell. A $295,000 DNR Aquatic Habitat grant covered most of the expense. The rest comes from anonymous donors and a $5,000 gift from the Mullett Lake Area Preservation Society. The Pigeon River empties into Mullett Lake.
“We will be aggressively monitoring the (former pond) area for invasive species,” Ramsdell said. “The dam removal was the most important thing and it’s creating beautiful meadow habitat (upstream).”
© 2015 Howard Meyerson
Appears in Michigan Outdoor News.
Wow. Wouldn’t it be weird if this actually happened on the AuSable? Six dams!
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We couldn’t even remove the one on the Huron near Ann Arbor – where you’d think there would be an environmental neuron or two firing. It didn’t even generate electricity. The people wanting rowing were organized. If we were out west it would have been removed instantly.
To be fair: it does now permit fish passage, but there’s other stopper dams just above and below.
Kudos to all involved and a special thanks to Brian at Michigan Trout Unlimited.
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How many kWh were lost with this dam removal. What energy sources will replace this loss? Fossil fuel, nuclear? Are these good choices? 1 mile downriver habitat reportedly disturbed, mill pond reportedly 3-5 degrees warmer on surface or below surface? Folks I like electricity and some sacrifice is necessary. The least polluting source of energy is hydro. While there remains infrastructure we should utilize it.
All good questions David. Thanks for the comment. They also need to be weighed against the benefits of removing the dam and the liabilities associated with keeping it.
Clean does not mean green. Just look at all the damage that dam has done in the past – that belongs in the cost/benefit calculation. Small hydro is often not worth it. And that dam was homeopathic from an energy standpoint. We let them off too easy:
What happened to all the silt that the river has cut out of the old mill pond? It is deeply eroided and ugly!
Dm: Good question. What the river cutaway has flowed downstream. A lot of soil upstream of the dam has been piled up on banks and spead out. That soil came from excavations done to find the original river course. The soils are being anchored by tree and other plantings that followed.
Sediments also migrated downstream as the dam stoplogs were removed incrementally. Sediment did flow downand some has been collected and excavated out downstream sand traps built for that purpose. The increased velocity of the water flowing is expected to spread it out further and expose more gravel. In time it will run relatively clear.
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The AuSable is a gem as is an provides great a area for all not just a fly fisherman but all the public
Dam removal would deny use to thousands of state citizens.